James Croll LL.D., F.R.S.


1821 Born at St. Martins, Little Whitefield, Perthshire on January 2nd. Son of David Croll, stonemason. Tried various occupations; millwright, insurance agent, etc.
1859 Obtained appointment as Keeper in Andersonian University, Glasgow. Pursued studies on electricity, heat and physics, causes of climatic changes. Accepted land ice theory.
1864 1st paper on cause of climatic change. Attracted attention of Lord Kelvin Ramsay and A. Geikie.
1867 Appointed to post of Secretary to Scottish Geological Survey.
1875 Published volume on “Climate and Time” (results of 11 years of research).
Other lines of research: Determination of present rate of subaerial denudation by ascertaining quantity of sediment annually carried down by rivers.
Suggested Scandinavian Scottish ice-sheets coalesced on floor of North Sea, moving west.
Investigated cause of glacier motion.
Attributed submergence during Glacial period to displacement of earth’s centre of gravity by polar ice-cap.
Philosophical questions. (Last work: “The Philosophical Basis of Evolution”.)
1872 Wollaston Fund.
1876 Hon. degree of LL.D. conferred by St. Andrews University. F.R.S., Honourable Member of New York Academy of Science (and later of – Bristol Natural Society, Psychological Society of Great Britain, Glasgow Geological Society, Literature and Antiquarian Society of Perth and Perthshire Society of Natural Sciences).
1877 Murchison Fund.
1881 Resigned from Survey (ill-health).
1890 Died December 15th.

Biographies and Obituaries

Horne, J. Obituary notice of Dr. James Croll, F.R.S. Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society. v. 6 p.171-187.
List of papers and works in Appendix to Autobiographical Sketch pp. 527-535.
1907 Hist. Geol. Soc. London (1907) p 238.
1908 Hist. Geol. Soc. Glasgow (1908) p 204.